Mount Cholomontas

Cholomon or Cholomontas (sometimes transliterated as Holomontas) is a mountain in Central Macedonia, Greece, that covers almost all of central and east Chalkidiki. The ancient Greeks called the mountain Ypsison.

Cholomontas is a very important low mountain, near the city of Thessaloniki. Thus, a lot of people visit the region for the recreation. Native wildlife can be made a perceptible component of the forest scene by creating favourable habitats for birds and other small animals at roadside parks, rest areas and picnic sites. For larger species habitats should be created in glades, marshes or forest openings visible from the road. The refence on Platycnemis pennipes is about the subspecies Platycnemis pennipes pennipes. The reference on Pyrrhosoma nymphula is about the subspecies Pyrrhosoma nymphula nymphula. Although some Christmas trees can be obtained from thinning operations on private or public woodlands, most trees are carefully raised on Christmas tree plantations that are in many places of Cholomon. Picea abies, Abies sp. and Pinus sp. are the evergeen coniferous that are most often cultivated for this purposes. Concerning the fauna the quality of the site is indicated by the occurence of the invertebrate Syrichthus tessellum which is contained to the Presidential Decree 67/1981, the invertebrate Eppalage fatima which is refered to Heath J. 1981. Threatened Rhopalocera(butterflies) of Europe. Council of Europe, the invertebrate Maculinea alcon which is refered to IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988. 1988 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals, the invertebrates Platycnemis pennipes, Pyrrhosoma nymphula, Gomphus vulgatissimus which are refered to van Tol. J., Verdonk M.J. 1988. The protection of drangonflies (Odonata) and their biotopes. Council of Europe and the invertebrate Brenthis hecate which is refered to Koomen P. van Helsdingen P.J. 1993. Listing of biotopes in Europe according to their significance for invertebrates. Council of Europe.
Concerning the wild growning plants the quality of the site is indicated by the occurrence of 33 important taxa. Among them, one taxon is greek endemic, 8 taxa are protected by the EC Environment Legislation (1992), 2 taxa (Corydalis integra, Rosa arvensis) are included in the WCMC and/or European Red Data list, 10 taxa (Dactylorhiza saccifera, Himantoglossum hircinum, Lilium martagon, Neottia nidus-avis, Ophrys scolopax ssp. cornuta, Orchis laxiflora ssp. palustris, Orchis mascula, Platanthera bifolia, Platanthera chlorantha, Viola tricolor ssp. macedonica) are protected by the Greek Presidental Decree (67/1981), 10 taxa (Abies borisii-regis, Achillea chrysocoma, Amelanchier cretica, Arabis bryoides, Crocus veluchensis, Dianthus cruentus, Helleborus cyclophyllus, Lamium bifidum ssp. balcanicum, Saxifraga chrysospleniifolia, Trifolium pignantii) are Balkan endemics and 2 taxa (Geranium macrostylum, Stachys cretica ssp. cassia) find their main distribution area in the Balkan Peninsula extending also to Turkey.

In this region there is the forest of Aristotelian Univ. of Thessaloniki (Department of Forestry and Natural Environment). Cholomontas consists of forested hills with open forest structure and maquis. There aren't rivers or lakes. From a geological point of view Cholomontas belongs to the Serbo-Macedonian mass and Peri-rodope zone. The climate is the same as the inland areas of N. Greece. It is an intermediate climate type between those of the Mediterranean and the continent. The high altitudes (above 900 m) belong to the very humid zone, in winter, while the lower altitudes belong to the dry zone with mild winter climate. The biotope of Fagion hellenicum is without Abies borisii regis. A common hardwood type in NE Chalkidiki is a mixture of beech with oak and more rare with chestnut. These species because of their durability and strength is used for many items, ranging from boxes and coffins and materials for building construction. However, the more common use is for the mines of this region. Much more of a dozen of different hardwoods are found here and include Carpinus duinensis, Ostrya carpinifolia, Tilia tomentosa, Acer campestre, Acer pseudoplatanus, Rhus coriaria etc.

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